In 1779 Euler discovered two formulas for π which can be used to calculate any binary digit of π without calculating the previous digits. Up until now it was believed that the first formula with the correct properties (known as a BBP-type formula) for this calculation was published by Bailey, Borwein and Plouffe in 1997.
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"Euler Found the First Binary Digit Extraction Formula for π in 1779,"
Euleriana: 3(1), pp.23-30.
Available at: https://scholarlycommons.pacific.edu/euleriana/vol3/iss1/3