This is an annotated translation from Latin of E327 -- De motu rectilineo trium corporum se mutuo attrahentium (“On the rectilinear motion of three bodies mutually attracting each other”). In this publication, Euler considers three bodies lying on a straight line, which are attracted to each other by central forces inversely proportional to the square of their separation distance (inverse-square law). Here Euler finds that the parameter that controls the relative distances among the bodies is given by a quintic function.

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