Daniel A. Ochs
Harry E. Westermeyer
Papal sovereignty has been for centuries, and still 10, dominating force in the experience of the human race and is the fusionning of human institutions. Today it stands forth as a tremendous fan of history and by its very claims and power invites examination.
Richard C. Wood
This thesis was not written for the purpose of condemning the city of Los Angeles. The author has lived in the valley since 1918 and has been present during the period of conflict. Perhaps, for this reason, he is not qualified to judge the actions of the city. But the conclusions that have been made criticizing Los Angeles, the author sincerely believes, have come as a result of the investigation necessary to write this paper.
Even if it is granted that the criticisms are inspired by prejudice, if the reader accepts the facts presented in this thesis, or investigates the matter for himself, he will find that fair, impartial committees have condemned Los Angeles more severely than has been done in this paper. The State Legislature has deviated from its business of legislating on two occasions to investigate the city’s record in the valley. In both instances, with almost unanimous approval, the city has been severely criticized.
Many authors, journalists and engineers, who have been mentioned in the thesis, have made independent surveys of the controversy and in every instance they have become champions of Owens Valley. Morrow Mayo, in his book Los Angeles, bitterly denounces Los Angeles for its action in Owens Valley/ Judge Harlan Palmer, who served as the president of the water board, wrote in his paper, after retiring from the board, that Los Angeles could never repay Owens valley for the injury don, no matter how liberal they might be in prices paid for property.
One of the first important efforts at foreign missionary work by American churches was the conversion of the Hawaiian Islands, or Sandwich islands as they were commonly called in the early days of their discovery, the first missionaries to the islands had heard reports from traders and whalers and accounts from native youths as to conditions in the islands, and from these facts they had imagined what would await them upon their arrival. When they arrived at the islands, they found great changes had taken place, such great changes that to the missionaries they could only be explained as "miraculous" and the "work of God." These changes had been brought about almost entirely from contact with foreigners who had visited the islands since their discovery.
The purpose of this thesis is to trace the history of one of the chief elements which entered into the securing of recruits during the Civil War. This was the bounty system as it was used by the National, State, and local governments.
Wallace Worthy Hall
It is a well known fact that in recent years the United States Senate has increasingly become more critical of presidential appointments to the Supreme Court branch. In this thesis the author has undertaken an intensive study of the several cases between 1916 and 1930 in which, serious opposition developed to the confirmation of Supreme Court appointments. Within this period fall the unsuccessful fights against Justices Brandeis,Taft, Butler, Stone,and Hughes,and the successful opposition to Judge Parker. In each case an effort has been made to bring out the forces and arguments operative on either side of the controversy, and to establish the fundamental motivation underlying these several manifestations of senatorial discontent.
The intensive study of this question has been limited to the period from 1916 to 1930. As a preliminary background, however chapter one has been devoted to a rapid survey of the confirmation struggles arising over Supreme Court appointments of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and in the concluding chapter, brief reference has been made to the subsequent record of Chief Justice Hughes, to illustrate the false premise upon which some of the struggles have been founded. In the concluding lines,the author has attempted to state what he believes to be the only justifiable grounds for future attacks upon presidential nominees to the Supreme Court of the United States.
Mervyn V. Miller
The characteristic attitude of the major portion of native Californians toward the California Missions is one of innocent, ignorant acceptance combined with but little interest or concern. By this I mean that the Missions are accepted as forming part of the Historical beauty of the State of California, but the pa- sons for this belief are not known--nor the reasons for the fact that these old adobe churches moulded an older generation into a foundation stone upon which rests the present glory of a State unsurpassed in scenic or historic grandeur they exist, hence they were..
Herbert D. Gwinn
Of all the stories and articles written about Captain J.A. Sutter in recent years, not one of them has adequately covered the history of his famous Fort. To the layman the fort itself may seem unimportant, but when we stop to consider that it was an outpost of civilization penetrating the wilderness of Central California, offering shelter to those who pioneered before us; we must confess that its existence was necessary to protect and usher into full City-hood, the infant Sacramento, then known as New Helvetia.
Thomas John Stevens
The treaty to establish a protectorate over Haiti is another step by the United States in the Americanization of the Caribbean area. These extensions have become a fixed policy of the Department of States. The Republicans and Democrats heartily support the United States government in her program of expansion. Protests will continue, but once the United States gets in, she will stay in. Already she has gone far from the position that she occupied when she first went in. The United States has always had a policy of expansion from early colonial period. She has extended control west, south, and north to secure fields for our population and commercial interests. In the brief period since the Spanish-American War, the United States has made rapid strides in the Caribbean area. Most of these republics have a large proportion of white blood, but Haiti is the black republic. White men have been able to hold land or become citizens only since 1899.1 In Haiti, a white man is looked upon with prejudice, just as the Americans look upon the Negro. This fact raises a great problem in the control of the United States over Haiti.
Daniel James Stone
It is the purpose of this paper to deal with the high state of culture attained by the mysterious Mayas of Central America and Yucatan.
How old is their civilization? No one knows.
Where did they come from? Who can say?
What did they wish to tell us in their writings that have come down through those past thousands of years? No one can decipher them.
The controversy over these points, and many others, has caused unlimited debate among scientists, and as yet, the questions remain unanswered.
What, then, is there to write about?
These people have left us beautifully carved stone buildings, palaces, and ruined cities that show careful planning; statues, pottery, etc., that show a remarkably high state of culture. This is to be the field of this paper.
Katherine Talbot Hodge
The world first heard of Sun Yat-sen in 1896 when the British government intervened to save him from deportation to Chine as a refugee. A decade and half later the public read with amazement that this name refugee had lived to be proclaimed the First President of the Republic of China. This men conspirator, a "visionary", socialist dreamer, a fighter for right end Justice became the hero and idol of the Chinese people. Today he is held in greater entres then any living statesmen or any political philosopher of the pet century. The respect mid his memory is paralleled in Chinese history only by the veneration due Confucius. His ultimate position in Chinese history is yet to be determined, but five years after his death he lives in the hearts of the people as the nation's greatest lender and as the outstanding figure of the Chinese Revolution
George Harmon Knoles
From 330 to 1453 A.D., Constantinople became first the strategic position on the land route from the west to the east and then the important trading center of the eastern Empire. During this period the Italian cities had to cope with the "Question of the Straits" among themselves. For them, it was merely a commercial question. For the Greeks it was an important question since the city needed to be defended against the onslaught of the Moslems by means of the city's strong walls and by the active fleet in the Straits.
The conquest of the Straits by the Turks, beginning around the middle of the fourteenth century lasted for about an hundred years. They accomplished this conquest in 1453. Gradually the Turks were able to extend their control over the entire Black Sea Area, and until that time the Black Sea was not entirely closed to trade. However, beginning in 1475 and lasting until 1774, the Black Sea was considered as a "virgin sea". Not until Russia had established herself upon the northern shores of the Black Sea did Turkey give up her exclusive control over all shipping within that body of water. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, all of the important countries of Europe had gained permission to pass their commerce through the Straits into the Black Sea. The problem of commercial freedom during peace time was pretty well settled, but Turkey through her control was able to prevent foreign warships from using the Straits and from entering the Black Sea.
The purpose of this paper is to give an account of the events which took place during the years 1914-1923 in the establishment of a "New Regime of the Straits."
Peter Walline Knoles
A brief glimpse into the diplomatic correspondence to preponderance of intercourse due to the economic development of Mexico and the United States. It was at first hoped that the scope of this thesis could cover the definite effect of the economic development upon the diplomatic relations. Unfortunately that task would cover such a wide field as to admit of no intensive study of any particular phase. The diplomatic correspondence of the last twenty years covers an enormous field, due largely to the unsettled conditions existing in Mexico subsequent to the fall of Porfirio Diaz
Oliver Eller Irons
The Caribbean countries have attracted increasing interest from students of American political history and the more their history is investigated, the more do we realize the growing significance of the role played by American capital in the development of their industries. The literature of tropical agriculture is coming to be more extensively available but until only recently has this subject received slight attention from our writers. The concentration of any attention on the fruit phase of tropical agriculture by American students of history and economics has been nearly wholly lacking, as well as receiving only scant attention from writers not connected with interests having financial investments in the Caribbean.
The American people have every reason to be more actively interested in tropical agriculture, and the general public should familiarize itself more intimately with the tropical fruits that are now fast becoming a staple food for every American household.
Edith Eileen Knoles
The history of the Tacna-Arica Dispute presents varied problems to the student of international relations. From the period of Spanish American independence to the present there have developed new aspects of international law and practice according to the light brought upon it by several generations of experience, The circumstances of Per’s throwing her influence with Bolivia in the War of the Pacific in order to preserve the “balance of power” illustrate the traditional type of alliance entered into by nations fearing the growing strength of neighboring countries; the appeal to patriotic impulse and sentiment in carrying on a war whose outcome in doubtful for the weaker nations; delaying settlement through plebiscitary action; the vicissitudes of politics; and intolerance fed by national pride and lack of scientific study of the problem serve as landmarks in explaining the features of international disputes under the “old diplomacy”.
The purpose of this paper is to furnish an historical background of the Tacna-Arica Dispute, to trace the arguments used by each nation in their attempts at adjustment, and to see whether the so-called “new” international diplomacy has had any effect upon this particular problem.
Elna Mae Miller
The purpose of this thesis is to give an outline of education and its progress on the island of Porto Rico, from the coming of the Spaniards through the years of American control. It is not written for experts on Porto Rican education, although it is the data of such experts, that has made this work possible. It is rather for those American students, who know little or not.hing of this possession, its early history, or its educational problems past or present; and yet who, like myself hear more and more of this island each year, so fast is it becoming a central force in the Unification of Pan American education and problems.
This year marks the third decade of American control so that that portion dealing with educational progress since then, has been arbitrarily divided into ten year periods. This has been done merely for the sake of convenience, however, as the results of educational progress being abstract can never definitely be confined to periods.
The writer is fully aware that this thesis i s only an outline of educational development but the subject is so broad, the years covered so extensive, and the modifications made in the existing systems so numerous, that many important phases have had to be treated summarily or eliminated altogether; but nevertheless, it is hoped that this study will give a comprehensible conception of these people, their struggle for enlightenment, and the success which they have achieved.
The twentieth century is revealing a steady increase in the influence of the United States in the Caribbean region, both in politics and economic development. The arm of America has been gradually forcing out the European nations. Counting colonies and protectorates, the United States has under its supervision a greater Caribbean population than the population of the thirteen colonies at the time of the Declaration of Independence. In trade the United States is the best customer of Central America and the West Indies. The region is one of the chief sources of our raw-materials imports.
The majority of the citizens of the United Statesdo not recognize the importance of the Caribbean to us. They are unaware of the manner in which the United States is increasing its power and influence. It is a distinct shock to many to learn of our imperialistic policy.
The purpose of this paper is to trade one specific example of the intervention of the United States in the Caribbean. Nicaragua has been chosen largely because of recent troubles there and because it affords an excellent example of a virtual though unrecognized American protectorate.
The difficulties in the way of a careful study of the country are very great. Historical works are especially unsatisfactory. The colonial period is much more ably treated than the recent period. The most satisfactory book on the subject is "The Five Republics of Central America" by Dana G. Munro. The thread of this paper is largely taken from the material of this one book supplemented by other shorter accounts. A large part of the material is taken from government documents, magazine articles and pamphlets of the Pan-American Union. Much of the magazine material is difficult to use because of ignorance of the ulterior motives of the writers, but there is enough of value to reveal the broad tendencies of political development. The economic development is more obscure. Data concerning the condition of the country at the present time is almost totally lacking due to the unreliability of newspaper accounts. Diplomacy prevents the giving out of material by members of the Consular service.
John S. Landrum
During the nineteenth century the industry and capi- txl of the United States was entirely absorbed in the develop- ment of our home industries and resources. In fact, as may have been expected, we did not have nearly enough capital for this work and had to borrow from Europe.
But toward the end of the century it became apparent to thinking men that the time was not far distant when we should have a surplus of capital here, and that to employ it we would have to seek foreign fields for investment. The Spanish American War led us into the Caribbean and the Philippines in an official capacity, and we were then definitely given over to a policy of imperialism.
Marshall John Rutherford
The question to be discussed in this dissertation is whether or not the upland owners on navigate waters live, by virtue of the position of their land a right of ocean to the free enjoyment of the water in front of the land there of for purpose of navigation.
The question here involved has been considered by many legislatures and courts as well as by many text writers and as a result of such consideration there is a great variety of opinions. I shall in this dissertation direct my attention to the law as believe it be in California.
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