Daniel James Stone
It is the purpose of this paper to deal with the high state of culture attained by the mysterious Mayas of Central America and Yucatan.
How old is their civilization? No one knows.
Where did they come from? Who can say?
What did they wish to tell us in their writings that have come down through those past thousands of years? No one can decipher them.
The controversy over these points, and many others, has caused unlimited debate among scientists, and as yet, the questions remain unanswered.
What, then, is there to write about?
These people have left us beautifully carved stone buildings, palaces, and ruined cities that show careful planning; statues, pottery, etc., that show a remarkably high state of culture. This is to be the field of this paper.
George Harmon Knoles
From 330 to 1453 A.D., Constantinople became first the strategic position on the land route from the west to the east and then the important trading center of the eastern Empire. During this period the Italian cities had to cope with the "Question of the Straits" among themselves. For them, it was merely a commercial question. For the Greeks it was an important question since the city needed to be defended against the onslaught of the Moslems by means of the city's strong walls and by the active fleet in the Straits.
The conquest of the Straits by the Turks, beginning around the middle of the fourteenth century lasted for about an hundred years. They accomplished this conquest in 1453. Gradually the Turks were able to extend their control over the entire Black Sea Area, and until that time the Black Sea was not entirely closed to trade. However, beginning in 1475 and lasting until 1774, the Black Sea was considered as a "virgin sea". Not until Russia had established herself upon the northern shores of the Black Sea did Turkey give up her exclusive control over all shipping within that body of water. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, all of the important countries of Europe had gained permission to pass their commerce through the Straits into the Black Sea. The problem of commercial freedom during peace time was pretty well settled, but Turkey through her control was able to prevent foreign warships from using the Straits and from entering the Black Sea.
The purpose of this paper is to give an account of the events which took place during the years 1914-1923 in the establishment of a "New Regime of the Straits."
Oliver Eller Irons
The Caribbean countries have attracted increasing interest from students of American political history and the more their history is investigated, the more do we realize the growing significance of the role played by American capital in the development of their industries. The literature of tropical agriculture is coming to be more extensively available but until only recently has this subject received slight attention from our writers. The concentration of any attention on the fruit phase of tropical agriculture by American students of history and economics has been nearly wholly lacking, as well as receiving only scant attention from writers not connected with interests having financial investments in the Caribbean.
The American people have every reason to be more actively interested in tropical agriculture, and the general public should familiarize itself more intimately with the tropical fruits that are now fast becoming a staple food for every American household.
Edith Eileen Knoles
The history of the Tacna-Arica Dispute presents varied problems to the student of international relations. From the period of Spanish American independence to the present there have developed new aspects of international law and practice according to the light brought upon it by several generations of experience, The circumstances of Per’s throwing her influence with Bolivia in the War of the Pacific in order to preserve the “balance of power” illustrate the traditional type of alliance entered into by nations fearing the growing strength of neighboring countries; the appeal to patriotic impulse and sentiment in carrying on a war whose outcome in doubtful for the weaker nations; delaying settlement through plebiscitary action; the vicissitudes of politics; and intolerance fed by national pride and lack of scientific study of the problem serve as landmarks in explaining the features of international disputes under the “old diplomacy”.
The purpose of this paper is to furnish an historical background of the Tacna-Arica Dispute, to trace the arguments used by each nation in their attempts at adjustment, and to see whether the so-called “new” international diplomacy has had any effect upon this particular problem.
Elna Mae Miller
The purpose of this thesis is to give an outline of education and its progress on the island of Porto Rico, from the coming of the Spaniards through the years of American control. It is not written for experts on Porto Rican education, although it is the data of such experts, that has made this work possible. It is rather for those American students, who know little or not.hing of this possession, its early history, or its educational problems past or present; and yet who, like myself hear more and more of this island each year, so fast is it becoming a central force in the Unification of Pan American education and problems.
This year marks the third decade of American control so that that portion dealing with educational progress since then, has been arbitrarily divided into ten year periods. This has been done merely for the sake of convenience, however, as the results of educational progress being abstract can never definitely be confined to periods.
The writer is fully aware that this thesis i s only an outline of educational development but the subject is so broad, the years covered so extensive, and the modifications made in the existing systems so numerous, that many important phases have had to be treated summarily or eliminated altogether; but nevertheless, it is hoped that this study will give a comprehensible conception of these people, their struggle for enlightenment, and the success which they have achieved.
The twentieth century is revealing a steady increase in the influence of the United States in the Caribbean region, both in politics and economic development. The arm of America has been gradually forcing out the European nations. Counting colonies and protectorates, the United States has under its supervision a greater Caribbean population than the population of the thirteen colonies at the time of the Declaration of Independence. In trade the United States is the best customer of Central America and the West Indies. The region is one of the chief sources of our raw-materials imports.
The majority of the citizens of the United Statesdo not recognize the importance of the Caribbean to us. They are unaware of the manner in which the United States is increasing its power and influence. It is a distinct shock to many to learn of our imperialistic policy.
The purpose of this paper is to trade one specific example of the intervention of the United States in the Caribbean. Nicaragua has been chosen largely because of recent troubles there and because it affords an excellent example of a virtual though unrecognized American protectorate.
The difficulties in the way of a careful study of the country are very great. Historical works are especially unsatisfactory. The colonial period is much more ably treated than the recent period. The most satisfactory book on the subject is "The Five Republics of Central America" by Dana G. Munro. The thread of this paper is largely taken from the material of this one book supplemented by other shorter accounts. A large part of the material is taken from government documents, magazine articles and pamphlets of the Pan-American Union. Much of the magazine material is difficult to use because of ignorance of the ulterior motives of the writers, but there is enough of value to reveal the broad tendencies of political development. The economic development is more obscure. Data concerning the condition of the country at the present time is almost totally lacking due to the unreliability of newspaper accounts. Diplomacy prevents the giving out of material by members of the Consular service.
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