John Muir


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68 into parallel vals [valleys] & ridges as if the main vals [valleys] had been the channel of gls [glaciers] filling them from [range] to range & flowing north and south. [sketch] & indeed consisting the height of the basin – from 4 to 6000 feet above sea level & the fact that its many ranges were ice laden it seems impossible that during the gl [glacial] winter these valleys could fail to be filled with ice The evidence is not as yet sufficient for absolute proof yet it all tends towards the manifestation of the grand condition – a sea of ice [extending] from the Wasatch to the Sierra corrugated by the mtn [mountain] ranges into a billowy surface the whole crawling northward & southward to the ocean by the Klamath & Columbia Valleys & those of the Colorado & lesser valleys more to the west. Apart from the fact of the glaciations of the mtns [mountains]

69 bounding these valleys the chief evidence is derived from the trends of the Valleys the general character of the flanks of the mtn [mountain] ranges & in particular from the overflow [ ] condition of interrupting cross spurs & ranges. This much is certain there was a general glaciation of the mtns [mountains] towards the close of the great winter only a few of the mtn [mountain] gls [glaciers] specially fed from abundant fountains flowed out into the plains or main inter range valleys 2nd there probably was a period of unusual glaciations of the vals [valleys] as well as mtns [mountains]

Date Original



Original journal dimensions: 9.5 x 16 cm.

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Holt-Atherton Special Collections, University of the Pacific Library

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John Muir, journals, drawings, writings, travel, journaling, naturalist