Campus Access Only

All rights reserved. This publication is intended for use solely by faculty, students, and staff of University of the Pacific. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, now known or later developed, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the author or the publisher.

Date of Award


Document Type

Dissertation - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)



First Advisor

John V. Schippers

First Committee Member

Deann Christiansen

Second Committee Member

Robert R. Hopkins

Third Committee Member

Dennis C. Brennan

Fourth Committee Member

R. Ann Zinck


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of two first grade mathematics programs, a literature based language and manipulative approach to mathematics instruction, Explorations, as compared to a manipulative approach, Math Their Way. These two programs use a similar manipulative approach, however, Explorations includes the use of literature and structured language activities.

Procedures: Ninety-eight students were involved in this study. Sixty-seven students received instruction with Explorations and thirty-one with Math Their Way for a period of approximately five months. All students were preand posttested on the Metropolitan Achievement Tests Sixth Edition (MAT Q.) in the areas of listening comprehension, number, problem solving, and computation. In addition, a random sequential sample of thirty-one students was observed and tested on specific problem solving skills and processes by the researcher and an experienced consultant. A quasi-experimental design was used to test three sets of hypotheses. The two approaches to teaching mathematics were compared on the following variables: listening comprehension, numeration, problem solving (operation recognition), computation, problem solving strategies, and problem solving processes.

Findings: Using the analysis of covariance procedures, the Explorations group scored significantly higher, p <. 001 , on the numeration test. This test evaluated numeral recognition and reading, and place value.

Conclusions: Both programs were viewed favorably by teachers and students. On most outcome variables both programs produced comparable results. One ancillary finding of interest indicated that students who were able to verbalize their processing scored significantly higher in the area of computation.



To access this thesis/dissertation you must have a valid email address and log-in to Scholarly Commons.

Find in PacificSearch Find in ProQuest



If you are the author and would like to grant permission to make your work openly accessible, please email


Rights Statement

Rights Statement

No Known Copyright. URI:
The organization that has made the Item available reasonably believes that the Item is not restricted by copyright or related rights, but a conclusive determination could not be made. Please refer to the organization that has made the Item available for more information. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use.