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Date of Award


Document Type

Dissertation - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)



First Advisor

Helmut H. Reimer

First Committee Member

Robert R. Hopkins

Second Committee Member

Roy J. Timmons

Third Committee Member

Mari G. Irvin

Fourth Committee Member

Gary N. Howells


The purpose of this study was to test certain hypotheses related to androgyny and self-esteem in women and how marital status, educational level, and age may be related to those constructs. These constructs were assessed through the utilization of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale {TSCS) and the Bern Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI). The subjects who voluntarily participated in this research were 143 female re-entry students from community colleges, colleges and universities in the central-northern region of California. The statistical analyses included the Analysis of Variance procedure, Pearson and Partial Correlation coefficient and the Chi -Square Test of Association. The findings of this study indicated that adult females who are categorized as Androgynous reported higher self-esteem than females in the other three BSRI categories, Feminine sex-typed (high femininity/low masculinity), Masculine sex-typed (high masculinity/low femininity), and Undifferentiated (low femininity/ low masculinity). Those women who were categorized as Undifferentiated generally scored lower than the females in the other categories. Further statistical analyses indicated that women who rated themselves high on masculinity traits and/or those who rated themselves high on femininity traits, tended to also rate themselves high on self-esteem. The magnitude of the trait ratings, however, not their categorization, was the primary correlate to self-esteem. Due to the low magnitude of the coefficients, the practical significance of the relationship is questionable. Results of the study suggested that self-esteem is a personal characteristic not restricted on the bases of marital status, educational level, or age.



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