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Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)



First Committee Member

William P. Bacon

Second Committee Member

Robert R. Hopkins

Third Committee Member

Shirley M. Jennings

Fourth Committee Member

Diane C. Sorenson

Fifth Committee Member

Arlen Hansen


Purpose. This seven-week high school English literature study purported to compare the effects of two combinations of novels and their collateral curricular treatments. DUO A combined Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn with Knowles' A Separate Peace. DUO B combined the same Twain novel with Hentoff's I'm Really Dragged But Nothing Gets Me Down. A key question in the inquiry was which of the two modern works would increase the appeal and accessibility of the 19th century classic. Specifically, the study posed nine null hypotheses focusing on these areas: (1) knowledge of literary terms and figurative language; (2) literary analysis and inference or interpretation; (3) empathy and social awareness; (4) imaginative writing; (5) literary discrimination; (6) expository writing; (7) classroom discussion; (8) creative productions; and (9) student involvement and satisfaction. A tenth area was teacher reaction to the theory and implementation of the DUOS. Procedures. Extensive curricular materials for each DUO were created, (Volume II). The study was located in two high schools in two different districts; each school furnished two classes with one studying DUO A and the other DUO B. The total sample was divided in this manner: 52 students in DUO A and 50 students in DUO B. At School No. 1 a different teacher taught each DUO; at School No. 2 the same teacher taught both. The seven-week investigation included four days of pretesting and five days of posttesting in areas 1-5 above. The investigator created thirteen instruments; a fourteenth instrument was the California Achievement Test 1977. Eight analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were employed to test the hypotheses bearing on the areas listed as 1-8. The covariates were: pretests and previous English grade (1-5); previous English only (6); previous English grade and California Achievement Test 1977 Test 2, Form C only for (7); and CAT '77 to test area (8). A factorial design implemented the inquiry making it possible to detect possible interaction effects between treatment, school, and sex. To test for area (9), 17 chi square analyses were used. Finally, a tally was computed of the responses on the twenty-seven-item questionnaire and content analyses were devised for the student and teacher self-reports. Findings. The latter instruments revealed that the teachers appreciated the curricular materials and grew professionally through using them. For the most part, the students enjoyed the curricula. The only two objections to the DUOs were the number of tests and the shortness of time. A noticeable reaction was the interest in the creative productions. Of the nine null hypotheses tested, six were rejected and three retained. DUO B made higher significant mean gains than DUO A in: knowledge of literary terms and figurative language, literary analysis, empathy and social awareness, creative productions, and classroom discussion. It appeared that the pairing of a non-literary and a 19th century classic was the more effective combination. All the students preferred Huck Finn over the modern works. Recommendations. It is recommended that this Literary DUOS study be replicated. The following are certain conditions which should be provided for: (1) increase the time from seven to nine weeks and administer the pre- and post-tests before and after this nine-week treatment period; (2) allow at least one hour for Pre- and Post-tests II, III, IV, and V, and one-half hour for Pre- and Post-test I; (3) allow a teacher to teach only one DUO due to the heavy requirements of the research aspects; (4) include more academically talented students among the subjects; (5) encourage the schools to purchase the books; (6) allow for pre-service training of the teachers in both the research and curricular aspects; (7) encourage the teachers to begin emphasizing the creative opportunities right at the start; (8) acquaint the school counselors with the research constraints.



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