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Date of Award


Document Type

Thesis - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.)


Pharmaceutical and Chemical Sciences

First Advisor

Xin Guo

First Committee Member

Xin Guo

Second Committee Member

Bhaskara Jasti

Third Committee Member

Silvio Rodriguez


Proteins are large biomolecules that have great therapeutic potential in treating many human diseases. Proteins exert higher specificity and more complicated functions; they are well endured and less inclined to evoke immune responses when compared to small molecule drugs. However, exogenous proteins when administered intravenously are prone to immune reactions. Chemical and enzymatic denaturation, and poor penetration into cells are some other challenges for clinical use of intracellular proteins. Proteins that enter cells through endocytosis will be eventually degraded in lysosomes if they do not escape the endosomal pathway before reaching lysosomes. Therefore, the development of protein delivery systems, including liposomal and/or polymeric nanoparticles would substantially facilitate the clinical use of proteins. This approach can protect the proteins from denaturation and immune reactions. Previously, our group has developed cationic lipid-coated magnesium phosphate nanoparticle (CAT-LP MgP NP) formulations to enhance the intracellular delivery of the protein, catalase. The objective of the current research is to improve the physicochemical properties of CAT-LP MgP NP. The magnesium phosphate (MgP) nanoparticles were prepared by water-in-oil micro emulsion precipitation. The cargo protein catalase was complexed with cationic liposome prepared by lipid hydration and extrusion. Then magnesium phosphate (MgP) nanoparticles were mixed with the catalase-complexed cationic liposome to form the final complexed CAT-LP MgP NP formulation. By sonication, extrusion and modification of the lipid composition, we have successfully prepared complexed CAT-LP MgP NP formulations of reduced size. The pH-sensitivity of the improved delivery system was observed at pH 6.0. Furthermore, the improved delivery system reduced the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level inside EA.hy.926 cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) to 35% of the control, whereas the previously reported catalase formulation of our group reduced the ROS levels to 50%, indicating that the complexed formulation delivers functional catalase more efficiently into the EA.hy.926 cells. Complexed CAT-LP MgP NP with reduced size has delivered cargo protein more efficiently than encapsulated CAT-LP MgP NP.





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