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Date of Award


Document Type

Dissertation - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)



First Advisor

John V. Schippers

First Committee Member

William Topp

Second Committee Member

John [?]

Third Committee Member

Bobby Hopkins

Fourth Committee Member

Estelle Lau


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a set of Chinese bilingual tapes for multiplication instruction. These tapes, called the Tiu Multiplication Tapes (TMT) were initially developed for learning centers and individualized instruction.

The problem was to determine whether the use of the TMT would be a more effective procedure for reinforcement of multiplication facts than an equal amount of time spent on traditional reinforcement activities. The study also attempted to determine whether t here was a higher retention rate resulting from the use of either of the two. A comparison on the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS) mathematics gain score of the two groups was also made to see if there was a significant difference.

The two hypotheses investigated were:

Hypothesis I

There would be no difference in the pupils achievement in the multiplication facts between hose using the TMT and the traditional reinforcement activities in (a) the post-test scores and (b) the delayed post-test scores .

Hypothesis II

There would be no difference in the performance between those pupil s using the TMT and the traditional activities in the overall mathematics progress mean gain scores of their third grade CTBS in mathematics .

The research methodology was quasi-experimental where one experimental group and one control group were used. The collected data from the pretests, post-tests, the delayed post-tests, and t he CTBS mathematics gain scores, were used for statistical analysis.

The findings indicated no significant difference between the two methods of reinforcement. While not at the significant level, the average measured scores of the treatment group out-performed the control group in every respect.

In conclusion, the TMT could be a valuable tool for reinforcement and individualized instruction on learning multiplication facts. It is recommended that replication of the study be made in other languages.



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