The prehospital use of advanced clinicians, including physician assistants (PAs), can potentially improve clinical outcomes and reduce unnecessary burdens on emergency departments. This literature review offers a global perspective by comparing the use of PAs in the prehospital setting in the United States and the Netherlands. While there is limited research on clinical outcomes and the clinical utility of advanced clinicians in alternative transport models, the domestic and international examples evaluated in this review have the potential to impact the American healthcare system significantly. The Dutch healthcare system, which utilizes PAs in the prehospital setting, is known for being accessible, affordable, and providing high-quality care. The findings of this literature review may provide a framework for the widespread domestic implementation of advanced clinicians in prehospital medicine in the United States.



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