John Muir


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8 Glaciation of Lava regions Many of the lavas are so soft as to crumble under glacial action or so [ ] by clvg [cleavage] planes as to give way & break up in very irregular forms leaving a rough surface wh soon parts with glacial marking by subsequent weathering. The extreme variability also of the lavas both in the resistance offered to ice action & in the method of their acquirements of form greatly increases the difficulty of reading glacial history inscribed upon them. Sufficient [ ] is [] to determine the fact that almost the entire lava deposits of the Sierra [covering] half the range in thick blankets & obliterating the pre-volcanic [Sierra] landscapes by filling its valleys & burying its hills & ridges & mtns is pre glacial in age & that the greatest & most 9 universal of the later floods of fire were outpoured just at the period of the obliteration of the ancient rivers. Also there are hard lavas still manifesting the polish scratching & [montanced] forms of glaciers together with well deformed [ ] in some favored places. Notably at the head of Independence Lake showing that the crumbled hills & hollows of this region with their various lavas sculptured into all kinds of fantastic & picturesque forms remain to this day almost unchanged however great the changes of the preglac periods & nowhere are these changes more strikingly exhibited on the very summit of the range along the head of the Feather tributary. There seems to have been a great val now filled with

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Original journal dimensions: 10 x 17 cm.

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Holt-Atherton Special Collections, University of the Pacific Library

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John Muir, journals, drawings, writings, travel, journaling, naturalist