Document Type

Article

Publication Title

Frontiers in Immunology

ISSN

1664-3224

DOI

10.3389/fimmu.2021.714090

First Page

3329

Publication Date

9-1-2021

Abstract

Although most causes of death and morbidity in premature infants are related to immune maladaptation, the premature immune system remains poorly understood. We provide a comprehensive single-cell depiction of the neonatal immune system at birth across the spectrum of viable gestational age (GA), ranging from 25 weeks to term. A mass cytometry immunoassay interrogated all major immune cell subsets, including signaling activity and responsiveness to stimulation. An elastic net model described the relationship between GA and immunome (R=0.85, p=8.75e-14), and unsupervised clustering highlighted previously unrecognized GA-dependent immune dynamics, including decreasing basal MAP-kinase/NFkB signaling in antigen presenting cells; increasing responsiveness of cytotoxic lymphocytes to interferon-a; and decreasing frequency of regulatory and invariant T cells, including NKT cells and MAIT cells. Knowledge gained from the analysis of the neonatal immune landscape across GA provides a mechanistic framework to understand the unique susceptibility of preterm infants to both hyper-inflammatory diseases and infections.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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