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Accurate ionic bond energy measurements with TCID mass spectrometry and imaging PEPICO spectroscopy
Date of Award
Thesis - Pacific Access Restricted
Master of Science (M.S.)
First Committee Member
Second Committee Member
Third Committee Member
Two projects are presented here. In the first, metal-cyclopentadienyl bond dissociation energies (BDEs) were measured for seven metallocene ions (Cp2M+, Cp = η5-cyclopentadienyl = c-C5H5, M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) using threshold collision-induced dissociation (TCID) performed in a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. For all seven room temperature metallocene ions, the dominant dissociation pathway was simple Cp loss from the metal. Traces of other fragment ions were also detected, such as C10H10+, C10H8+, C8H8+, C3H3+, H2M+, C3H3M+, C6H6M+, and C7H6M+, depending on the metal center. Statistical modeling of the Cp-loss TCID experimental data, including consideration of energy distributions, multiple collisions, and kinetic shifts, allow the extraction of 0 K [CpM+ - Cp] BDEs. These are found to be 4.95 ± 0.15, 4.02 ± 0.14, 4.22 ± 0.13, 3.51 ± 0.12, 4.26 ± 0.15, 4.57 ± 0.15, and 3.37 ± 0.12 eV for Cp2To+, Cp2V+, Cp2Cr+, Cp2Mn+, Cp2Fe+, Cp2Co+, and Cp2Ni+, respectively. The measured BDE trend is largely in line with arguments based on a simple molecular orbital picture, with the exceptions of a reversal in Cp2Mn+ and Cp2Ni+ BDEs (although within uncertainty), and the exceptional case of titanocene, most likely attributable to its bent structure. The new results presented here are compared to previous literature values and are found to provide a more complete and accurate set of thermochemical parameters.
In the second project, imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence (iPEPICO) spectroscopy has been used to determine 0 K appearance energies for the unimolecular dissociation reactions of several energy selected 1-alkyl iodide cations n-CnH2n+1I+ → CnH2n+1+ + I, (n = 2-5). The 0 K appearance energies of the iodine-loss fragment ions were determined to be 9.836 ± 0.010, 9.752 ± 0.010, 9.721 ± 0.010, and 9.684 ± 0.010 eV for n-C3H7I, n-C4H9I, n-C5H11I, and n-C6H13I molecules, respectively. Isomerization of then-alkyl iodide structures into 2-iodo species adds complexity to this study. Using literature adiabatic ionization energies, ionic bond dissociation energies were calculated for the four modeled iodoalkyl cations and it was shown that as the alkyl chain length increases, the carbon-halogen bond strength decreases, supporting the suggestions set forth by inductive effects. In the modeling with statistical energy distributions and rate theory, the role of hindered rotors was also evaluated and no strong experimental evidence was found either way. The heaviest species in the series, heptyl iodide (C7H15I) was also measured via iPEPICO and showed to have a greater complexity of fragmentation than the lighter analogs. Sequential dissociation of the first fragment ion, C7H15+ leads to C4H9+, C5H11+, and C3H7+ ions in competitive dissociation processes, dominated at low energies by the C4H9+ cation.
Rowland, Tyson G.. (2012). Accurate ionic bond energy measurements with TCID mass spectrometry and imaging PEPICO spectroscopy. University of the Pacific, Thesis - Pacific Access Restricted. https://scholarlycommons.pacific.edu/uop_etds/809
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