Campus Access Only

All rights reserved. This publication is intended for use solely by faculty, students, and staff of University of the Pacific. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, now known or later developed, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the author or the publisher.

Date of Award


Document Type

Thesis - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)


Intercultural Relations

First Advisor

Janet Bennett

Second Advisor

Christopher Deal

First Committee Member

Kent Warren


This project was conducted with the objective of measuring differences between U.S. American and Chinese preferences for specific leadership characteristics and behaviors. An online survey was administered to U.S. American and Chinese nationals working in U.S.-based multinational corporations (MNCs). Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which they considered 112 characteristics or behaviors to contribute to or inhibit effective leadership. The data were statistically analyzed to measure variances in how the two samples responded to each item, and to provide insight into what characteristics or behaviors contribute to or inhibit effective leadership in China and in the U.S. The research findings were compared with cross-cultural/intercultural leadership literature, in particular the global leadership and organizational behavior effectiveness project (GLOBE).

Several of the findings of this study are similar to those previous research projects conducted on U.S. and Chinese people. Specifically, charismatic and team oriented leadership, which previous research suggests are universal facilitators of effective leadership, were found to facilitate effective leadership. Additionally, many of the individual leader attributes found to facilitate effective leadership in the U.S and China respectively, were also reported to do so in this study. However, the findings also suggest that Chinese orientation towards uncertainty may be weakening, whereas the U.S. data provide a moderate level of support that suggests that the U.S. orientation along the in-group collectivism dimension is strengthening. Unfortunately, due to an unexpectedly small sample size, the findings of this project are limited in their utility. This project did, however, provide invaluable insight into the process of leadership research in China that will inform the design and further define the scope of the second phase of the research.



To access this thesis/dissertation you must have a valid email address and log-in to Scholarly Commons.

Find in PacificSearch



If you are the author and would like to grant permission to make your work openly accessible, please email


Rights Statement

Rights Statement

In Copyright. URI:
This Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights-holder(s).