Campus Access Only

All rights reserved. This publication is intended for use solely by faculty, students, and staff of University of the Pacific. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, now known or later developed, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the author or the publisher.

Date of Award


Document Type

Thesis - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.)


Biological Sciences

First Advisor

Gregg Jongeward

First Committee Member

Lisa Wrischnik

Second Committee Member

Craig Vierra


While development in flies is well understood, pattem formation and the evolution thereof in arachnids have yet to be clarified. Flies and other metazoans primarily use two families of genes called Hox genes and Pax genes to regulate embryogenesis. Because of the high evolutionary conservation of Hox and Pax proteins, I hypothesize that arachnids also use this system to organize their body pattern. To enable studies of the Westem black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus, an embryonic eDNA library and a fixation protocol were developed for L. hesperus embryos. The generation of these tools will allow comprehensive analysis of black widow spider development and give insight into whether, and how, spiders use Hox and Pax genes to organize their bodies. Finally, it will provide a more thorough understanding of how different developmental mechanisms have evolved and ultimately how changes in gene expression can lead to a change in overall body plan.



To access this thesis/dissertation you must have a valid email address and log-in to Scholarly Commons.

Find in PacificSearch



If you are the author and would like to grant permission to make your work openly accessible, please email


Rights Statement

Rights Statement

In Copyright. URI:
This Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights-holder(s).