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Date of Award


Document Type

Thesis - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.)


Pharmaceutical and Chemical Sciences

First Advisor

Jesika Faridi

First Committee Member

William Chan

Second Committee Member

Andreas Franz


Tamoxifen is an effective anti-estrogen for treatment of women with hormonedependent breast cancer but acquired drug resistance limits its therapeutic benefit. We have previously reported that expression of active Akt3 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells results in estrogen-independent tumors that are actually stimulated to grow after tamoxifen treatment. We hypothesize that this tamoxifen resistance may be attributed to binding of different co-regulator proteins and/or different binding affinity of these proteins to the estrogen receptor in M CF-7 cells overexpressing active Akt3 as compared to parental MCF-7 cells. We have immuno-precipitated the estrogen receptor along with bound co-regulator proteins in both cells lines after tamoxifen, estradiol, or vehicle treatment. After 2-D gel electrophoresis separation of these immuno-precipitated proteins and comparing them using PDQuest 2-D analysis software, we identified protein spots that were statistically different under the treatment conditions between the two cell lines. The isolated protein spots were subjected to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. By searching protein databases through the MASCOT website for protein identification, we have identified estrogen receptor co-regulator proteins that may play a potential role in tamoxifen resistance. Current studies are focused on addressing the role of differential protein binding as a possible mechanism of tamoxifen resistance in Akt3 over-expressing breast cancer cells.



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