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Date of Award


Document Type

Thesis - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.)


Biological Sciences

First Advisor

Kishori Chaubal

First Committee Member

Fuad M. Nahhas

Second Committee Member

Richard R. Tenaza


This study describes the biochemical activity and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns (antibiograms) of 104 gram-negative bacteria, represented by six species of bacilli, isolated from ten macaws of the genus Ara. Bacterial samples were acquired from fecal matter of six different species of macaws, ages one to three years, housed in a variety of locations. Bacteria from these samples were cultured onto selective media for classification. Identification and biochemical characterization were accomplished with the API 20E system. Escherichia (E.) coli accounted for 78% (81/1 04) of the total number of isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using the Kirby-Bauer method. Biotype and antimicrobial susceptibility data gathered in this study correspond with data of studies done on pigeons and llamas. These data show specific E. coli biotypes as members of the microflora of macaws.



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