Campus Access Only

All rights reserved. This publication is intended for use solely by faculty, students, and staff of University of the Pacific. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, now known or later developed, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the author or the publisher.

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)


Graduate Studies


A study was designed in order to assess the effectiveness of a positive self-modeling strategy in increasing the performance of four University of the Pacific baseball players. A multiple baseline design across participants was used as a means of assessing the effectiveness of the self-modeling technique. Participants viewed edited positive self-modeling videotapes of their own batting performance. Measures were taken on: (a) the number of line drive hits; (b) ground ball hits; (c) the number of times the participant hit a ground ball, but was thrown out; (d) the number of times the participant hit a line drive, but it was caught; (e) swings and misses; (f) not swinging at a strike (called strikes); (g) not swinging at a ball (called balls); (h) the number of foul balls; and (i) the number of pop ups. In addition, batting averages were kept for game performance. It was expected that participants would show an increase in hits, a decrease in hit outs, a decrease in called strikes, an increase in called balls, a decrease in foul balls, and an increase in batting average when each participant began the positive self-modeling. The performance of those participants not yet viewing their positive self-modeling tape was not expected to show such improvement. Improvement was observed in three out of the four participants.