Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)


Graduate School

First Advisor

Martin T. Gipson

First Committee Member

Michael L. Davis

Second Committee Member

Paul C. Nasman

Third Committee Member

Esther Cohen


A well-run business combines motivated, trained employees with the right work environment to produce the greatest results at the least cost. When the results (from a product or service) do not exceed costs by a sufficient margin, at least one part of the system is not operating efficiently. This problem is caused by a production deficiency, which occurs when actual performance does not match the desired performance (Herem, 1979). In order to determine the root of this problem, two areas must be examined. These areas are (a) the nature of the work environment and its organizational structure, which may prevent performance in spite of employee effort, and (b) the employees themselves who may lack either the motivation or the skills to perform the job. Intervention can be designed for either or both of these areas to ameliorate the production deficiency. After implementation, the results of such interventions must be evaluated for their effectiveness. This paper will review the processes of deficiency assessment, intervention, and program evaluation as they might be found in a business or service setting.