Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.)


Biological Sciences

First Advisor

Ryan I. Hill

First Committee Member

Jane Khudyakov

Second Committee Member

Zachary Stahlschmidt


The distinction between populations due to environmental factors like climate and geography are well-known and expected, therefore it is not illogical to believe more disjunct habitats would also impact genetic structure. Through Restriction Site Associated DNA Sequencing (RADseq) and Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis the genetic structure and differentiation (fixation index, Fst) of Speyeria callippe across four regions in California: the North Coast Ranges, Bay Area, Diablo Range, and South Coast Ranges were analyzed. The influence of geographic distance, human population density, and forest cover were explored as factors influencing the genetics of these populations. The combination of mtDNA and RADseq datasets sheds light on both longer-term patterns across the genome, as well as more recent patterns in mtDNA shaped by female demography. Our results indicated the Bay Area populations of Speyeria callippe are noticeably different with evidence of elevated Fst and genetic degradation. These results are consistent with the predicted impact of high human population in the Bay Area. Furthermore, the Bay Area’s higher Fst persists despite greater connectivity among populations - that is, relatively low geographic distances between sites and low elevation connected grassland habitat. Given populations of Speyeria callippe callippe are an endangered species, the impact of human population on genetic differentiation should not be overlooked.



Available for download on Friday, May 01, 2026

Included in

Biology Commons



Rights Statement

Rights Statement

In Copyright. URI:
This Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights-holder(s).