Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)


Sport Sciences

First Advisor

Courtney Jensen

First Committee Member

Nathan Rhea

Second Committee Member

Mark Van Ness


Appraisal of scientific literature and understanding continues to grow in the domain of human performance. The effects of sex on concentric resistance training and power output are not well understood. Recent advancements in technology permit more precise measurements of force output and the kinematic changes elicited by training stress. A unique device in capturing kinematic performance output is Proteus Motion. The machine produces an external magnetic load through a protruding apparatus connected to a gyrosphere, which in turn captures concentric movement through all three planes of movement (sagittal, coronal, transversal). The aim of this study is to investigate power output discrepancies between the sexes in upper extremity concentric movements. After 5 training sessions females expressed significant increases in concentric bilateral bicep curl power by 22.4 ± 30.1 w (p=0.001) and bilateral tricep extensions by 34.1 ± 30.3 w (p<0.001). Male subjects improved mean and peak power between sessions 1-5 (p<0.001), while there was no significant improvement from sessions 5-8 (p>0.250). In horizontal and vertical exercises females and males shared similar power profiles in pull motions, but not push movements. Future studies investigating biological sex, and its influence on power output are needed.





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