Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)



First Advisor

Jessica S. Grady

Second Advisor

Corey S. Stocco

First Committee Member

Carolynn S. Kohn


Shyness is characterized by anxious and reluctant behaviors that may put children at risk for underperforming academically. Previous research has observed that active behavioral engagement in the classroom improves academic performance, however, shy children show deficits in this type of engagement. The current study examined whether behavior skills training (i.e., instruction, modeling, rehearsal and feedback) improved active engaged behavior in pre-K and kindergarten-age children using a multiple baseline across participants design. Four children between 3 to 5 years of age with varying shy behaviors as reported by their parents were asked to complete a series of math worksheets prior to and during intervention. Participants’ hand -raising and question asking were measured. Due to limitations, it is unclear whether the present study’s BST protocol was effective in increasing engagement. Future research should examine the use of BST, in-situ training, and application of skills in the natural setting.





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