Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)


American Academy of Asian Studies

First Advisor

Not Mentioned


One of the decisive factors in twentieth century developments undoubtedly has been the rise of nationalism. Usually the child of foreign rule or colonialism, nationalism was the progenitor of reform movements that might have boon impossible without it. This applies particularly to the continents of Asia and Africa, whose peoples had experienced long periods of foreign rule. Two striking examples of how foreign domination triggered the move for independence, "modernism" and all the reform that this my entail are provided in Egypt and Iraq. Both countries have regained full independence only within the last quarter of a century. The reasons for selecting the reform movements in these two countries as the subject of this thesis are as follows: (1) Egypt and Iraq are regarded as the two leading countries. in the Arab world; moreover, they are frequent rivals for Arab leadership. (2) Although located in Africa, Egypt controls the Suez Canal, while Iraq--in Asia--is a major oil producer, thus both countries find themselves involved internationally. (3) Both control the main areas of the great rivers of the Middle East, the Nile in Egypt and the Euphrates and Tigria in Iraq.