Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)



First Advisor

Helmut H. Reimer

First Committee Member

Roseann Hannon

Second Committee Member

W. Preston Gleason

Third Committee Member

Heath Lowry

Fourth Committee Member

Pat Blumenthal


The purpose of this study was to examine counselors' expectations as they pertain to sex-role stereotyping of both males and females. This study represents an attempt to partially replicate the research of Braverman et al. (1970).

The subjects were 120 high school and community college counselors randomly selected from California public schools and 60 counselors-in-training randomly selected from five California public and private universities.

Data were gathered with the Stereotype Questionnaire. It is composed of 38 bipolar items each describing a characteristic attribute of an individual. Each counselor and counselor-in-training completed one of three forms--adult, male, or female. Data were analyzed with a CRF- 332 ANOVA. Dunn's multiple comparison procedure and Tukey's a posteriori test statistic were used to test differences between means.

In line with previous research it was expected that counselors would judge the male and the adult ideal standard as highly similar and the female as different. It was expected that counselors-in-training would judge men, women, and adults as similar.

These expectations were not supported. Rather, the data indicated that the female and the adult standard are viewed as not different. The adult, female and male are .all described in terms of characteristics located on the same side of each bipolar item. However, it was found that the male is expected to possess some of these characteristics of the adult standard to a significantly higher degree. Further, it was found that counselors and counselors-in-training do not differ in their expectations concerning the characteristics of a healthy, mature, socially competent individual.

It was concluded that counselors at all levels have been flexible in changing their traditionally stereotypic attitudes toward females: therefore, the prospects for changing any stereotypic attitudes counselors may have concerning males is considered favorable.