Date of Award


Document Type

Dissertation - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)



First Advisor

Robert R. Hopkins

First Committee Member

J. Briscoe

Second Committee Member

Estelle Lau

Third Committee Member

Armand P. Maffia

Fourth Committee Member

R. Vasavada


Purpose. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the relationship to achievement in math and reading of Self-Contained, Integrated, and Independent Learning Plan bilingual education programs for Punjabi students, K-3, in a Northern

yurpose: The purpose of the investigation was to determine the relationship to Tchievement in math and reading of Self-Contained, Integrated, and Independent Learnifng Plan bilingual education programs for Punjabi students, K-3, in a Northern Cali- -_--_--_---+:,_~n-:tapub-lrc---school sy s tem. Ina:Uutti:ou,-t·h-e-re-orearcrr-suughr-to-dB-t

California public school system. In addition, the research sought to determine the relationship to reading and math achievement for this population of (a) Gender, (b) Birthplace, (c) Number of years in school prior to final year in grade one, (d) Grade placement, (e) Socio-Economic status, (f) Language most often used by child at home, (g) Language most often used by parents to child, (h) Language most often used by adults at home, (i) Program type, (j) English language proficiency, and (k) Punjabi language proficiency. Procedure. Home Language Surveys identified Punjabi students in whose homes a language other than English was used. The Language Assessment Battery, in its published English version and in its locally translated form, was administered to each identified child. Proficiency levels on these tests determined placement in bilingual programs and, if placed, the program in existence in the child's attendance area was used. The Self-Contained and Integrated programs were taught by bilingual Punjabi teachers. Students in the Independent Learning Plan program were assisted for 15 to 20 minutes daily by bilingual Punjabi aides, individually or in small groups of two or three. All K-3 students in the three programs (134) were included in the study initially. By the end of the investigation, only 63 students remained for whom there were sufficient data for meaningful analysis. Findings. Of the two multi-faceted hypotheses tested, program type produced no significant differences in reading or math. Only one demographic variable was found to be significantly related to achievement. The Punjabi language proficiency variable produced a negative relationship. Students classified as Limited Punjabi Proficient were statistically lower in math achievement than Non-Punjabi Proficient and Fluent Punjabi Proficient students. The researcher was unable to account for this negative relationship with specificity. Kramer's modified Tukey multiple comparison method for unequal n's was employed to locate the differences among groups. The only significance demonstrated was found in the comparison of the Non-Punjabi Proficient and Limited Punjabi Proficient groups, yielding a q value significant at the .10 level of confidence. Conclusions and Recommendations. The researcher concluded that for this limited sample, program type was not a significant factor in achievement, but cautioned that error related to selection might have affected the findings. Additional investigation was recommended under particular circumstances to determine whether current findings may be replicated under better research conditions. Contingent upon replication of findings, it was recommended that decisions related to bilingual programs for this population realistically might be based upon parent goals, affective needs of individual students, or even logistical factors. A Native Language-Second Language Tandem (NLSLT) bilingual education model with reverse option to include all students in second language learning was proposed.



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