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Date of Award


Document Type

Dissertation - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)



First Advisor

Robert R. Hopkins

First Committee Member

Estelle Lau

Second Committee Member

David P. Baral

Third Committee Member

Mari G. Irvin

Fourth Committee Member

Deann Christensen

Fifth Committee Member

Keith Redenbaugh


Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not a particular form of distributed practice (John Saxon's incremental development) would be associated with significant achievement gains in seventh grade mathematics. Procedures. A quasi-experimental design utilizing a pretest-posttest format in which the experimental group was matched to a national norming sample was employed to examine achievement gains. The experimental group received one academic year of seventh grade mathematics instruction in which homework assignments employed Saxon's distributed practice format. Student achievement gains were measured with the mathematics portion of the Stanford Achievement Test. The results were subjected to t-tests and analysis of variance to determine significance. Results and conclusions. Small but significant gains were attained by students in the sample on the following portions of the Standford Achievement Test: Total Mathematics (p $<$.01), Concepts of Number subtest (p $<$.001), and Mathematics Computation subtest (p $<$.01). Significant gains were not attained on the Mathematics Applications subtest. Females showed somewhat greater achievement gains on the Concepts of Number subtest (p $<$.1) while males showed greater achievement gains on the Mathematics Computation subtest (p $<$.05). It was concluded that although mathematical learning at the seventh grade level can be positively influenced by a distributed practice homework format, the degree of that influence is probably not as great as can be found in verbal and psychomotor learning.



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