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Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)


Educational and Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Robert R. Hopkins

First Committee Member

Lois N. Harrison

Second Committee Member

Dennis Brennan

Third Committee Member

Suzanne Hanser

Fourth Committee Member

Catherine C. Turley


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a second year in kindergarten on the self-concept, peer acceptance, academic attitude, classroom adjustment, and academic achievement of children who were identified by their kindergarten teacher as developmentally unready for first grade.

The ex post facto study, which was conducted in a large school district in northern California, was unique in its longitudinal nature. Whereas other studies looked at subjects over a 2 or 3 year period, no other study was found that examined the effects of kindergarten nonpromotion over an 8 year span.

The sample comprised 63 pupils who entered kindergarten between the chronological ages of 5 years 3 months and 4 years 9 months and who were assigned primarily to one kindergarten teacher. The subjects were divided into two groups: (1) The developmentally immature nonpromoted (DI-N), the children whose parents accepted the recommendation for a second year in kindergarten and (2) The developmentally immature promoted (DI-P), the children whose parents placed them in first grade notwithstanding the teacher assessment of readiness. The subjects represented various racial backgrounds and different socioeconomic levels.

An analysis of variance was used to compare the self-concept (SCAHIN), peer acceptance (BRP Sociometric Scale), academic attitude (EAS), classroom adjustment (DESB II), and academic achievement (CTBS) means for the two groups. Grade level was used as a controlling variable to parcel out differences between grades into separate categories, to provide information concerning possible interaction effect among factors, and to extend the generalizability of the findings.

Results indicated that nonpromotion of the developmentally immature kindergarten child had a positive effect upon subsequent levels of peer acceptance, academic attitude, classroom adjustment, and academic achievement. The difference between means was beyond the .01 level for the BRP and beyond the .05 level for scores on the EAS, 5 of 6 of the scores on the CTBS and 10 of 14 factors on the DESB II all favoring the nonpromoted group. The differences in the cumulative CTBS mean scores favored the nonpromotcd group and were beyond the .01 level at every grade.

Although nonsignificant F-values beyond p>.05 were obtained on the variable self-concept, it was noted that the statistics consistently favored the nonpromoted group.



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