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Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)



First Advisor

R. Ann Finck


Purpose: This study investigated the use of mapping as an instructional technique to improve reading comprehension in readers exhibiting word-calling behavior (difference model readers) . Mapping is a graphic display of the events and ideas in a passage, depicting sequence and subordination. It was hypothesized that mapping would provide means for processing information from the text at the levels of concept formation, association and integration. Procedure: Six students in grades 7 through 10 were selected as subjects. They received instruction in mapping in conjunction with their regular reading program. At the conclusion of each instructional unit, a test passage was administered to measure change in comprehension abilities. The study utilized a single case experimental design; specifically, multiple baseline across subjects. Treatment lasted between 17 and 21 weeks, depending on the subject. In addition, pre- and post-test scores on the Reading Miscue Inventory were compared. Graphs generated by the multiple baseline procedure were analyzed through visual interpretation and the Rn statistic. All other data were subjected to descriptive analysis. Conclusions: The Rn statistic approached but did not achieve significance. Visual interpretation of the graphs indicated two trends: (1) the decreasing of variability in passage scores, and (2) the decreasing of extremely low scores of the lowest functioning subjects. Data from the Reading Miscue Inventory indicated substantial positive change in the subjects' comprehension abilities. These findings give preliminary, limited support to the effectiveness of mapping in improving comprehension with difference model readers.



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