Campus Access Only

All rights reserved. This publication is intended for use solely by faculty, students, and staff of University of the Pacific. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, now known or later developed, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the author or the publisher.

Date of Award


Document Type

Dissertation - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)


Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor

Lois N. Harrison

First Committee Member

Fred Muskal

Second Committee Member

Marilyn E. Draheim

Third Committee Member

Linda K. Wark

Fourth Committee Member

Mari G. Irvin


The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact that the affirmative action principle of equal employment opportunity for women administrators of music departments has had on the California Community College system. Specifically, the study examined female music department chairs and division deans of the performing arts (whose assignment includes supervising music departments) to determine if there had been any change in the ratio between male and female administrators from 1970 to the present. The study also investigated demographic, psychological, and organizational factors that may present barriers for women seeking positions within higher education administration. Barriers identified in previous studies were compared to those identified in this study to determine whether they have been eliminated or remain or have been replaced with new ones. The female music department chairs and performing arts deans were surveyed by mail and interviewed by telephone. The data were gathered, presented, and analyzed, with portions compared to the findings of similar previous studies and publications from the California Postsecondary Education Commission. The data were presented categorically by theme, including gender and ethnic diversity; education and teaching experience; administrative experience; influence of organizational factors; methods of recruitment; role of mentors; facilitators and barriers to career achievement; value of gender equity; perceptions of affirmative action; and building an administrative career. This study found that the percentages of women and female minorities have increased since the implementation of affirmative action. The findings further indicate that although effective, affirmative action does not address all issues that result in gender and racial inequities. Other intervention is necessary, including development of mentorship programs, active recruiting of female students in non-traditional areas of study, and elimination of gender biases in the teaching of children and adults.



To access this thesis/dissertation you must have a valid email address and log-in to Scholarly Commons.

Find in PacificSearch Find in ProQuest



If you are the author and would like to grant permission to make your work openly accessible, please email


Rights Statement

Rights Statement

In Copyright. URI:
This Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights-holder(s).