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Date of Award


Document Type

Thesis - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.)


Pharmaceutical and Chemical Sciences

First Advisor

William Kehoe

First Committee Member

Allen Shek

Second Committee Member

Patrick Catania

Third Committee Member

Sian Carr-Lopez

Fourth Committee Member

Timothy Smith


Heart failure in its simplest terms can be defined as the inability of the heart to pump blood in adequate amounts to maintain circulation. A more descriptive definition of HF is a complex clinical syndrome, where the myocardium is unable to pump sufficient amounts of blood to supply the metabolic needs of the body which may be characterized by dyspnea, fatigue, effort intolerance, and decreased survival. Data from the recent heart disease and stroke statistics update from the American Heart Association has startling implications. The overall prevalence of total cardiovascular disease in the United States is 79.4 million individuals. While the prevalence of heart failure only encompasses 2.5% of the overall total, heart failure affects 57.7 thousand Americans. It is interesting to note that the prevalence of heart failure is equally distributed among men and women. In the past, it was thought of a disease that mostly affected men. The cost of treatment of heart failure is staggering. Since 1979 there has been an overall increase in heart failure hospital discharges of 175 percent. In 2007 it is estimated that the total cost of heart failure is $33.2 billion in the United States. Based on these estimates, the Evaluation of Heart Failure Clinic Alternative - Clinician Effectiveness Study was begun at San Joaquin General Hospital.





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