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Date of Award


Document Type

Thesis - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)



First Advisor

Carolynn Kohn

First Committee Member

Kenneth Beauchamp

Second Committee Member

Gary Howells


Typically in the secondary educational system, classes are held in the whole-class lecture format. In this arrangement, opportunities for active engagement are low. Instructional methods such as response cards and guided notes have been examined for their efficacy in increasing active class participation, but little of this research had been conducted in a university setting. The current study compared three instructional techniques: whole-class lecture, response cards, and guided notes. Data collected from six discussion sections were compared in terms of: percentage of students actively engaged during each programmed opportunity and students' daily quiz scores following each instructional period. Results suggested that while active participation was significantly higher in the response card condition, quiz scores were unaffected by instructional method.





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