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Date of Award


Document Type

Dissertation - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)


Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor

Jean Longmire

First Committee Member

Marilyn Draheim

Second Committee Member

Robert Oprandy

Third Committee Member

Mouchumi Bhattacharyya

Fourth Committee Member

Marie Helt


This dissertation involves the research of lexical bundles, sequences of three or more words likely to co-occur in a register, or situational variety of English. Bundles vary by register. The research is grounded in the study of a corpus, a collection of texts. Essays written by both professional and student writers were analyzed for four-word bundles to determine how bundles might vary. Student essays were categorized by writing level, determined by the exam for which the students were writing the essays. Results suggest that both professional and student writers use bundles more associated with the academic than the conversational register and that both the professional writers as well as the college proficient writers, those scoring higher on the exam, were more likely to use bundles to structure discourse than nonproficient college writers. Results also indicate that the proficient college writers were more likely to quote and paraphrase the source material than the nonproficient college writers. Findings are limited due to the small corpora size. Included are implications for instruction and further research.



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