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Date of Award


Document Type

Thesis - Pacific Access Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)


Conservatory of Music

First Advisor

David E. Wolfe

First Committee Member

Audree S. O'Connell

Second Committee Member

Eric Hammer


This study examined the effects of music versus silence on measures of state anxiety, perceived relaxation, and physiological responses of chiropractic patients prior to and immediately after chiropractic treatment interventions. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to one of three conditions. The control group (I) was instructed to relax in silence. Experimental group (II) listened to preferred style of music with relaxation instruction. Experimental group (III) listened to new age music with deep-breathing/visualization relaxation instruction. State anxiety inventory, ten-point Likert tension scale rating, and blood pressure measurements were administered before and after chiropractic procedures for each condition. Additionally, a questionnaire was completed post-treatment. Significant differences (12 < .05) were found from pretest to posttest among the three groups for state anxiety and Likert scale ratings for tension. No significance was rendered for physiological measurements across conditions.



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