Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)


Physical Education

First Advisor

Evelyn L. Spring

First Committee Member

S. Thomas Stubbs

Second Committee Member

Gary N. Howells


Officiating sport contests requires much personal control and poise, self-confidence, and a thorough knowledge of the rules and mechanics. Accepted as a part of sport, through exhibitions of improper player, coach, and spectator behavior, is criticism of officials. The impact of such criticism on the self-esteem of the official appears to be a key question and prompted this research. The study problem was to determine the gender and rating difference in self-esteem, if any, of Amateur Softball Association (A.S.A.) officials of the Greater San Joaquin Valley (GSJV) Metro. Specifically, the study compared the self-esteem level of: (1) softball officials and the normative population; (2) female and male softball officials; and (3) rated and unrated softball officials.

One hundred softball officials were used as subjects for this study. The officials completed the Culture-Free Self~Esteem Inventory (CFSEI) and a Biographical Data Questionnaire. The inventories were hand scored and the t-ratio technique was used to compare the mean scores of the officials and the normative population, while the APP-STAT program analysis of variance was·used for the female/male and rated/unrated comparisons. All null hypotheses were tested at the .05 level of significance.

It was determined that (1) Softball officials had a significantly higher level of self-esteem than the normative population. (2) No significant difference of total self-esteem between females and males was discovered. However~ the females had significantly lower personal self-esteem than the men. {3) Rating status was not a significant factor in the self-esteem level of softball officials.

It was concluded that {1) The self-esteem level of A.S.A. officials, of the GSJV Metro, greatly exceeds that of the normative population. {2) Gender and rating status are not significant factors in differentiating self-esteem levels.





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