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Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)


Graduate Studies

First Advisor

Mike Davis

First Committee Member

Esther Cohen

Second Committee Member

Ken Beauchamp


This study examined the development of mands for missing objects. Two female children and two male children (ranging from 2 years, 1 month to 3 years, 5 months) were selected on the basis of screening probes that indicated an absence of manding. A mand probe consisted of instructions to complete a response chain when one of the needed objects was missing. For every response chain, each child was:. (a) taught to label (tact) the objects, (b) then taught to use the objects in reinforced response chains, and (c) then given mand probes for the stimuli just trained.

Results for all children indicated correct responses· to tact and operation probes but incorrect responses to the mand probes. After pretraining, mands were trained one at a time until generalized manding developed. The efficacy of the training procedures was established by using a multiple probe design. These results are discussed in terms of mands and tacts representing distinct response classes.