Campus Access Only

All rights reserved. This publication is intended for use solely by faculty, students, and staff of University of the Pacific. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, now known or later developed, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the author or the publisher.

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.)


Graduate School

First Advisor

Not Listed

First Committee Member

Harry John


Life Cycle and Transmission

Toxoplasmosis is a disease produced by infection with the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite which was first isolated from the North African rodent, Cyterodactylus gondii, in 1908. Since that time, this organism has been shown to have worldwide distribution and is probably the most common parasite of mammals, birds and reptiles (Remington., 1960). In 1965, Hutchinson described toxoplasma oocysts in cat feces, but it was not until 1970 that the life cycle of the organism was disclosed. The felidae represent the primary host for toxoplasma and are the only animals known to harbor the intestinal form (Frenkel., 1973). The oocysts are shed by the cat within 3 to 5 days after infection and sporulate within the feces in another 3 to 4 days. This oocyst is fairly resistant to drying and disinfectants and may remain infective in fairly moist soil for up to several years (Jacobs.. 1974). (Figure 1)





Rights Statement

Rights Statement

No Known Copyright. URI:
The organization that has made the Item available reasonably believes that the Item is not restricted by copyright or related rights, but a conclusive determination could not be made. Please refer to the organization that has made the Item available for more information. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use.