Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)



First Advisor

Doris Meyer

First Committee Member

J. Connor Sutton

Second Committee Member

S. Thomas Stubbs

Third Committee Member

Roger L. Reimer

Fourth Committee Member

Robert R. Hopkins


This parallel investigation was conducted to survey and to determine the immediate and longitudinal attitude values in selected college women following participation in elective physical activity classes. The expressed attitudes were measured by a modified Carlos L. Wear Physical Education Attitude Inventory adapted for use in this present study by the investigator.

Four experimental groups were chosen according to the cluster sampling technique, representing two life-time sport course offerings of badminton and women's fitness. Seventeen women enrolled in the fall fitness class and fourteen women in the fall badminton classes, comprised the longitudinal sample for this study. The spring semester fitness class numbered fourteen and thirteen women in the badminton classes made up the immediate term data. Sixteen randomly selected women qualified as non-activity class participators during the spring semester, and were selected for the control group.

The modified Wear Attitude Inventory, preceded by a short self-rating personal physical activity questionnaire, was administered in person, to all subjects on designated testing dates. Subjects participating in the longitudinal study were tested at the end of their fall semester 1975 classes and again at 12 and 20 weeks. The spring 1976 immediate- term subjects were administered the Attitude Inventory at the beginning, middle, and conclusion of their elective activity class participation. The control group was tested twice following a time sequence corresponding to the pro and post survey dates of the immediate-term study groups. Total subjects examined in this parallel attitude study numbered seventy-four.

Analysis of the data determined that there were no statistical differences in the comparison of the pretest and posttest attitude scores between the women enrolled in elective physical activity classes and the control group. Likewise, no significant differences were found in the attitude scores of college women during a semester of elective activity participation. The most positive attitude level was achieved on the posttest; however the gain was insignificant at the .05 level. Examination of the longitudinal attitude scores showed no significant statistical differences following participation in elective activity classes. Contrary to the study hypothesis, longitudinal attitude scores projected a slight numerical trend upward; however the gain Has not statistically significant. Additionally, there were no significant differences found in the comparison of the longitudinal mean gain scores of women who have participated in elective activity classes and them mean gain scores of women not electing to participate. Findings indicated that women at the University of the Pacific possess generally positive attitudes toward the values of physical activity. Both women's fitness groups expressed a more favorable attitude than both beginning badminton study groups and control group members.

Analysis of the data obtained from the self-rating Personal Physical Activity Questionnaire indicated that although the women held positive attitudes toward physical activity, 47 percent spend less than four hours per week engaged in actual physical outlets. This inability to spend more time involved in sport and recreational pursuits was reportedly due to lack of time prompted by study requirements and outside work.

Since no significant attitudinal changes between any of the tested variables was determined, It was concluded that these results might reflect the increased favorable conditions evident in an elective physical activity program.





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