Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)



First Advisor

Martin T. Gipson

First Committee Member

John R. Lutzker

Second Committee Member

Kenneth L. Beauchamp


Traditional university modes of instruction have been shown to be less effective than. both PSI and peer tutoring procedures. The present study compared the relative effectiveness of proctors and peer tutors in a PSI type course.

Twelve subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental conditions. The within-subject variable was the order of exposure to the teaching. Methods (being proctored, being tutored, or tutoring) and the. between-subject variables were type of teaching method (proctor-ed or peer tutored) and the number of the trial (first or .second test under the assigned teaching condition).

An analysis of variance split plot 3.22 of the number of correct answers on the first test of each unit yielded a significant main effect for teaching method; F(1,9) = 17.24, p < .01; and a significant interaction for Teaching Method x Order of Exposure to Teaching Conditions; F(2, 9) = 4.31, p < .05. Analysis of the number of tests taken to reach criterion yielded significant main effects for teaching method; F(1,9) = 7.44, p < .05; and for order of exposure to teaching conditions; F(2,9) = 4.88 p < .05.

The results indicate that proctoring resulted in better student performance than did peer tutoring on both measure of course performance. Other methods for easing the application of PSI type procedures to large courses or situations where proctors are unavailable should examined.



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