Campus Access Only

All rights reserved. This publication is intended for use solely by faculty, students, and staff of University of the Pacific. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, now known or later developed, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the author or the publisher.

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.)


Biological Sciences

First Advisor

Alice S. Hunter

First Committee Member

Ann Funkhouser

Second Committee Member

Dale McNeal


The first quantitative studies of pulmonary and cutaneous respiration in the amphibians were made on Rana esculenta and Rana temporaria by Krogh (1904). He inserted a cannula connected to an air pump into the trachea and analyzed separately the air forced through the lungs by the pump and the air surrounding the frog. He was able to show that in R. temporaria the lungs and skin are both important in respiratory exchange but in somewhat different ways. Oxygen enters through the lungs whereas carbon dioxide is excreted through the skin. Oxygen intake through the skin is determined solely by physical limitation while carbon dioxide excretion may vary with environmental charges. Krogh concluded that in R. temporaria the lungs dominate in oxygen consumption over the skin in a ratio of 3:1. In R. esculenta the ratio was 1:1. This probably correlated with the more aquatic habitat of R. esculenta. In the salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, Hutchison (1963) found that not only is eighty percent of the carbon dioxide produced released through the skin but the skin is also responsible for more than fifty percent of the total oxygen uptake at 15°C and below.

Rana catesbeiana tadpoles were used in these experiments. They were obtained from the Mokelumne River on Highway 88, two miles west of Clements, California

The function of the lungs in Rana catesbeiana tadpoles was studied.



Included in

Biology Commons



Rights Statement

Rights Statement

No Known Copyright. URI:
The organization that has made the Item available reasonably believes that the Item is not restricted by copyright or related rights, but a conclusive determination could not be made. Please refer to the organization that has made the Item available for more information. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use.