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Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.)


Biological Sciences

First Advisor

A. Mathias

First Committee Member

L. Christianson

Second Committee Member

F. Sayre

Third Committee Member

H. Runion


For centuries, men have known that the skin of toads and other amphibians possess pharmacologically active compounds (Abel and Nacht,1911;Chen and Jensen,1929;Chen and Kovarikova,1967).All amphibians produce toxins in glands scattered over the skin .Many anuran amphibians have parotoid glands located on the lateral ,anterior ldorsal surface which are apparently specialized for the secretion of large quantities of toxin. W'eiss(1899) and Muhse(1909) describe the histology of these glands.



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