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For centuries, men have known that the skin of toads and other amphibians possess pharmacologically active compounds (Abel and Nacht,1911;Chen and Jensen,1929;Chen and Kovarikova,1967).All amphibians produce toxins in glands scattered over the skin .Many anuran amphibians have parotoid glands located on the lateral ,anterior ldorsal surface which are apparently specialized for the secretion of large quantities of toxin. W'eiss(1899) and Muhse(1909) describe the histology of these glands.
Knickelbein, Roy Gordon. (1972). Pharmacological effects of a bufadienolide isolated from the toad Bufo boreas halophilus. University of the Pacific, Thesis. https://scholarlycommons.pacific.edu/uop_etds/1766
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