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Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)




This thesis deals largely with the history of teacher retirement in California. It covers the period from the class of the Civil War to June 30, 1957. Some background data were developed in the early American history of teacher retirement in order to understand better the early conditions in California.

The ultimate objective of the study is to show that California laws as they exist today are the results of continuous action for improvement of teachers’ retirement. This has been done by reviewing several areas of retirement history. These are mainly the area of mutual aid societies, early retirement legislation in the United States, early California history of teacher retirement, the progress of California teacher retirement legislations from 1895 through the legislative section of 1957, and the attitudes and actions of governors, legislators, professional organizations, and individuals as they influenced the changes in retirement practices.



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