Hyperprolactinemia, Clinical Considerations, and Infertility in Women on Antipsychotic Medications
Adam M. Kaye: 0000-0002-7224-3322
Infertility, the inability to establish a clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse, is caused by a wide variety of both male and female factors. Infertility is estimated to affect between 8-12% of couples trying to conceive globally. Female factor infertility can be subdivided into the following broad categories: ovulatory dysfunction, fallopian tubal disease, uterine causes, and oocyte quality. Hyperprolactinemia causes ovulary dysfunction along with other hormonal abnormalities, such as decreased estrogen, which can lead to infertility. In this regard, antipsychotics are commonly used for both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The use of these medications can be associated with hyperprolactinemia and hyperprolactinemia associated infertility. Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia occurs through blockade of D2 receptors on lactotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland. Discontinuation of the hyperprolactinemia-inducing antipsychotic is an option, but this may worsen the patient's psychosis or mood. If antipsychotics are determined to be the culprit of infertility, the degree of hyperprolactinemia symptoms, length of treatment with the antipsychotic, and risk of relapse should be assessed prior to discontinuation, reduction, or switching of antipsychotic medications. The treatment of a women's mental health and her desire to have children should always be considered as treatment may influence fertility while on the medication.
Edinoff, A. N.,
Silverblatt, N. S.,
Vervaeke, H. E.,
Horton, C. C.,
Kaye, A. D.,
Kaye, A. M.,
Kaye, J. S.,
Garcia, A. J.,
Neuchat, E. A.,
Eubanks, T. N.,
Hyperprolactinemia, Clinical Considerations, and Infertility in Women on Antipsychotic Medications.
Psychopharmacology bulletin, 51(2), 131–148.