Gender differences in the effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on parasympathetic vasodilatation in the rat submandibular gland
Archives of Oral Biology
Objectives: Submandibular vasodilatory responses are impaired in male streptozotocin-diabetic rats. However, the effects of diabetes on submandibular vascular reactivity in female rats have not been examined. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are gender differences in the effects of diabetes on parasympathetic vasodilatation in the rat submandibular gland. Methods: Diabetes was induced using streptozotocin, and vascular responses (calculated as the % increase in submandibular vascular conductance) to parasympathetic stimulation (1-10 Hz) were measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry. To estimate the relative contributions of nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI ) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), vascular conductance was measured before and after inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) and NO synthase (NOS). Results: Frequency-dependent increases in blood flow were observed in both male and female rats, but the contribution of EDHF was greater in females than in males. Further, PGI appeared to play a role only in males. Vasodilatory responses were diminished in all diabetic animals, and when compared with their respective controls the degree of impairment was similar in males and females. However, in diabetic males inhibition of COX and NOS had little or no effect, whereas inhibition of NO, but not COX, resulted in a further significant decrease in vascular responses in diabetic females. Conclusions: Parasympathetic vasodilatation in the rat submandibular gland is diminished equally in diabetic males and females. However, in males diabetes predominantly impairs PGI - and NO-dependent vasodilatation, whereas in females the contribution of EDHF-mediated pathways are affected and NO-dependent vasodilatation is preferentially maintained. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 2 2 2
Gender differences in the effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on parasympathetic vasodilatation in the rat submandibular gland.
Archives of Oral Biology, 55(10), 745–753.