Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Physician Assistant Studies


Physician Assistant Education

First Advisor

Rahnea Sunseri


End-stage ankle arthritis is a debilitating degenerative disease commonly located at the tibiotalar joint. The prevalence of symptomatic arthritis is about nine times lower than the rates associated with those of the knee or hip.1 Though less common than knee and hip arthritis, the US estimates greater than 50,000 new cases are reported each year.2 The most common etiology of ankle arthritis is post-traumatic pathology. Other etiologies related to ankle degeneration include primary degenerative disease, rheumatoid disease, osteonecrosis, neuropathologies, infection, and gout.3 Injury to the joint damages the intraarticular cartilage leading to changes in joint mechanics. These alterations cause the joint to wear out more rapidly, leading to complete obliteration of the joint space, significant pain, and functional impairment. Many treatment options are available for end-stage ankle arthritis; however, total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) and arthrodesis are considered standards of care.4

Whipple_Presentation Slides.pptx (34749 kB)
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Whipple_Presentation Slides.pptx (34749 kB)
Click here to download Presentation Slides



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