Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Physician Assistant Studies


Physician Assistant Education

First Advisor

Mark Christiansen


Intravenous (IV) catheter placement is the most frequently performed hospital procedure. IV catheters are essential for administering medications, fluids, radiographic contrast media, and collecting blood specimens. , However, IV catheter placement can be problematic in patients with veins that are not palpable or visible as this may delay the course of treatment. Most studies define difficult venous access as undergoing at least two IV attempts without success or use of other methods of IV placement. Alternative means of IV access include the use of an atypical vein (i.e., external jugular vein), ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous catheter (USGPIV) placement, intraosseous (IO) device use, or central venous catheter (CVC) placement. Current literature suggests that chronic medical conditions, IV drug abuse, chemotherapy, sickle cell disease, obesity, and dialysis may be contributing factors to difficulty obtaining IV access.4

Culberson_Presentation Slides.pptx (3612 kB)
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Culberson_Presentation Slides.pptx (3612 kB)
Click here to download Presentation Slides



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