and more grain raised. The patches of forest are nowhere awanting in general landscapes. Flowery grassy banks in all railroad cuts. The whole country covered with glacial drift, mostly fine as if far traveled. Tver, an old city once sacked by Ivan the Terrible and burned by the Poles. Population now 52,000; situated on the Volga, 120 miles from Moscow. A hot comfortless night on train, had beds made up after 12 o’clock. July 9th. Sun rises here about 4. Willows, elms, oaks, common, and as we speed southward the land is seen to be more fertile, black, with immense areas covered with wheat alternating with black bare fallow fields, a good deal of rye also, and buckwheat, the latter now in flower. Some of the wheat so heavy it is lodged, some nearly ripe apparently - yellow, most green. The farmers instead of using manures or clover crops to restore exhausted grain lands allow it to lie fallow. We have 2:40 P.M. passed many villages and farmsteads in which all the buildings are thatched; some very gray and ancient. In some tracts marshy or low, large numbers of cattle, sheep, geese, ducks are raised, but it is
Original journal dimensions: 9.5 x 16 cm.
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John Muir, journals, drawings, writings, travel, journaling, naturalist