by the river floods when the ice of the glacier that occupied side, especially where the tundra is low and flat, say 40 ft. high and covered with pools and strips of water, is not glacial ice, but ice derived from freezing of the water in veins and pools and water-cut hollows that have subsequently been dammed and then exposed by the wasting of the tundra on the edges by the action of the tide-water. On the surface of the tundra one sees at a glance that the river sediments on which the mossy covering is growing has been cracked by the frost in every direction. Into these crashed the tundra water from the melting snow and the rain falls to freeze again and again and press the sides of the fissure farther apart,
Original journal dimensions: 11.5 x 21 cm.
Holt-Atherton Special Collections, University of the Pacific Library
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John Muir, journals, drawings, writings, travel, journaling, naturalist