John Muir


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the accumulation of tundra moss and humus would eventually check the waste. As it is, the formation will not last much longer, a thousand years, or two thousand, perhaps. Mingled with the true glacial ice are masses of dirty stratified ice, made up of layers of clear ice alternating with layers of mud and sand, mingled with bits of humus and sphagnum and fragments of nearly everything belonging to the tundra. This dirty ice of peculiar stratification never blends into the clean ice, but is simply frozen upon it, fillings cavities and angles, or spread over some slope, and has its origin simply in the freezing of oozing films of clear or dirty water from the broken edge of the tundra above, and is, of course, comparatively a recent formation which is going on every fall and spring when frosts

Date Original



Original journal dimensions: 11.5 x 21 cm.

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Holt-Atherton Special Collections, University of the Pacific Library

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John Muir, journals, drawings, writings, travel, journaling, naturalist