Abstract Title

PREVALENCE OF CLEFT LIP AND PALATE ANOMALIES IN SOUTH-EAST ASIA

Lead Author Affiliation

Department of Orthodontics, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, University of the Pacific, San Francisco

Lead Author Status

Faculty/Staff/Researcher

Presentation Category

Research, Literature Review

Introduction/Context/Diagnosis

BACKGROUND. South-East Asia consists of eleven countries (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar(Burma), Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor Leste, and Vietnam) that are diverse in religion, history and culture. Population of 642 million people lives on area of 1.7 million sq. miles. Birth defects cause a significant proportion of infant and childhood mortality and morbidity. Regional offices of WHO are working towards improvement of this situation. Cleft lip and palate (CLP) anomalies are the second most common congenital malformations with average birth prevalence 1 in 500 – 1 in 1000 worldwide, while higher numbers occur in low-income and developing countries. Because of insufficient resources in many of these countries, CLP anomalies create a burden on individuals, families, and society. The first step to effectively plan improvement of this situation is to know how many babies with CLP are born in each specific country or location.

Purpose of our study was to review literature on prevalence of CLP in the South-East Asiancountries.

Methods/Treatment Plan

MATERIAL AND METHODS.A systematic review of literature was done using four search engines (PubMed, Scorpius, Google Scholar, and Science Direct) and keywords cleft lip, cleft lip and palate, cleft palate, prevalence, and names of eleven South-East Asian countries. The search was run with no language restrictions and covered the 1980 –2018 time period.

Results/Outcome

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.Twelve articles and two WHO reports matched the inclusion criteria and were reviewed in detail. No individual data from Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar and Timor Lestewere found in the reviewed literature.

Vast majority of studies were hospital-based and no division to syndromic and non-syndromic clefts was done. The highest birth prevalence was reported in Singapore - 1 per 574 live births.

Studies from Malaysia reported birth prevalence 1.24/1,000, Philippines 1.94/1000 and 5.7/10,000, Singapore 1.87-2.07/1000, Thailand 1.1-1.51/1000, and Vietnam 1.4/1,000 live births.

Significance/Conclusions

CONCLUSIONS.Birth prevalence of CLP anomalies in South East Asian countries seems to be high and varies by country. Birth defect registry and further studies focusing on environmental and genetic factors are needed to get a better understanding of etiology of CLP in South East Asia.

Comments/Acknowledgements

I would like to express my very great appreciation to Dr. Marie M. Tolarova for her valuable and constructive suggestions during the planning and development of this research work. Her willingness to give her time so generously has been very much appreciated.

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PREVALENCE OF CLEFT LIP AND PALATE ANOMALIES IN SOUTH-EAST ASIA

BACKGROUND. South-East Asia consists of eleven countries (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar(Burma), Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor Leste, and Vietnam) that are diverse in religion, history and culture. Population of 642 million people lives on area of 1.7 million sq. miles. Birth defects cause a significant proportion of infant and childhood mortality and morbidity. Regional offices of WHO are working towards improvement of this situation. Cleft lip and palate (CLP) anomalies are the second most common congenital malformations with average birth prevalence 1 in 500 – 1 in 1000 worldwide, while higher numbers occur in low-income and developing countries. Because of insufficient resources in many of these countries, CLP anomalies create a burden on individuals, families, and society. The first step to effectively plan improvement of this situation is to know how many babies with CLP are born in each specific country or location.

Purpose of our study was to review literature on prevalence of CLP in the South-East Asiancountries.