Title

Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress in etiology of common diseases

Lead Author Affiliation

Orthodontics

Second Author Affiliation

Orthodontics

Third Author Affiliation

Orthodontics, Biomedical Sciences

Fourth Author Affiliation

Orthodontics

Introduction/Context

Proteins are the major building blocks of structures forming a human body. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle, where synthesis and proper folding of proteins take place. However, various external and internal factors can disrupt its functioning thereby inducing ER stress. In response to a stressor, ER initiates Unfolding Protein Response (UPR), which serves as a salvage pathway to restore cellular homeostasis.

Method

Our objective is to describe various causes of ER stress and different mechanisms undertaken by the cell to overcome this imbalance. Understanding of the molecular signaling pathways allow us to understand the roles of ER stress in the pathogenesis of various common diseases like Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, fatty liver disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Results

Recent research articles on ER stress and common diseases were reviewed, information gathered, and summarized for this presentation.

Significance/Conclusions

In response to stress, UPR acts as a binary switch, decreasing protein translation and increasing chaperon-mediated protein folding to restore normal cell functions. But in the event of severe stress, it prepares the cell for apoptosis via caspases and cJNK. This pathway also leads to production of inflammatory mediators like Nuclear Factor-κβ, Interluekin-1β and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α. Other mechanisms are described for disease processes, such as a defect in UPR leading to accumulation of abnormal proteins as seen in neurodegenerative diseases or ERmediated apoptosis in Type 1 DM or ER-stress mediated inflammatory response in inflammatory bowel disease, fatty liver disease and obesity.

Comments

There is no doubt that ER stress is involved in etiology of many common diseases. Learning how environmental factors act to cause the ER stress and how cells and body systems respond may help to improve the treatment and in a long run, to lead to prevention of these diseases.

Location

University of the Pacific, Dugoni Dental School, San Francisco, CA

Format

Poster

Poster Session

Faculty, Student, and Staff Presentations

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May 31st, 10:00 AM May 31st, 3:00 PM

Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress in etiology of common diseases

University of the Pacific, Dugoni Dental School, San Francisco, CA

Proteins are the major building blocks of structures forming a human body. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle, where synthesis and proper folding of proteins take place. However, various external and internal factors can disrupt its functioning thereby inducing ER stress. In response to a stressor, ER initiates Unfolding Protein Response (UPR), which serves as a salvage pathway to restore cellular homeostasis.